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28.886 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Science and Culture: Math tools send legislators back to the drawing board [Political Sciences]

26.06.2018 | Stephen Ornes, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

*UPDATE: On June 18, 2018, after this article went to press, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled on two high-profile cases related to partisan gerrymandering. In effect, the rulings sidestepped the issue of when partisan gerrymandering is unconstitutional. Both cases—one concerning ...

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Arthropods in modern resins reveal if amber accurately recorded forest arthropod communities [Ecology]

26.06.2018 | Mónica M. Solórzano Kraemer; Xavier Delclòs; Matthew E. Clapham; Antonio Arillo; David Peris; Peter Jäger; Frauke St ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

It is not known whether the fossil content of amber accurately represents the arthropod biodiversity of past forests, and if and how those fossils can be compared with recent fauna for studies and predictions of biodiversity change through time. Our study of arthropods (mainly insects and ...

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Primary productivity below the seafloor at deep-sea hot springs [Environmental Sciences]

26.06.2018 | Jesse McNichol; Hryhoriy Stryhanyuk; Sean P. Sylva; François Thomas; Niculina Musat; Jeffrey S. Seewald; Stefan M. S ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

The existence of a chemosynthetic subseafloor biosphere was immediately recognized when deep-sea hot springs were discovered in 1977. However, quantifying how much new carbon is fixed in this environment has remained elusive. In this study, we incubated natural subseafloor communities under in ...

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Flagellum couples cell shape to motility in Trypanosoma brucei [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

26.06.2018 | Stella Y. Sun; Jason T. Kaelber; Muyuan Chen; Xiaoduo Dong; Yasaman Nematbakhsh; Jian Shi; Matthew Dougherty; Chwee ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Trypanosoma brucei is a highly invasive pathogen capable of penetrating deeply into host tissues. To understand how flagellar motility facilitates cell penetration, we used cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) to visualize two genetically anucleate mutants with different flagellar motility ...

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Caspase-1 inhibition prevents glial inflammasome activation and pyroptosis in models of multiple sclerosis [Neuroscience]

26.06.2018 | Brienne A. McKenzie; Manmeet K. Mamik; Leina B. Saito; Roobina Boghozian; Maria Chiara Monaco; Eugene O. Major; Jian ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

The pore-forming protein gasdermin D (GSDMD) was recently identified as the principal executioner of pyroptosis (“fiery death”), a type of proinflammatory programmed cell death driven by inflammasomes. Caspase-1 cleaves GSDMD, but whether this process contributes to neuroinflammation is unknown. ...

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Direct activation of a phospholipase by cyclic GMP-AMP in El Tor Vibrio cholerae [Microbiology]

26.06.2018 | Geoffrey B. Severin; Miriam S. Ramliden; Lisa A. Hawver; Kun Wang; Macy E. Pell; Ann-Katrin Kieninger; Atul Khataoka ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Second messengers are employed by all organisms to regulate fundamental behaviors, including biofilm formation, motility, metabolism, and pathogenesis in bacteria. We have identified a phospholipase in the El Tor Vibrio cholerae biotype, responsible for the current cholera pandemic, that is ...

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NMR chemical shift analysis decodes olefin oligo- and polymerization activity of d0 group 4 metal complexes [Chemistry]

26.06.2018 | Christopher P. Gordon; Satoru Shirase; Keishi Yamamoto; Richard A. Andersen; Odile Eisenstein; Christophe Copéret, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

The rational understanding and design of catalysts pose major challenges to chemists. While catalysts are involved in around 90% of industrial chemical processes, their discovery and development are usually based on screening and serendipity. Here, we show through a detailed analysis of the NMR ...

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Widespread loss of intermediate soil horizons in urban landscapes [Sustainability Science]

26.06.2018 | Dustin L. Herrmann; Laura A. Schifman; William D. Shuster, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

As societies move toward nature-based infrastructure to provide ecosystem services for sustainable urban environmental management, knowledge of urban soils remains a critical gap. An 11-city comparison of urban to reference preurban soil profiles revealed how urbanization modifies the presence ...

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Biological tissue-inspired tunable photonic fluid [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

26.06.2018 | Xinzhi Li; Amit Das; Dapeng Bi, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

We design an amorphous material with a full photonic bandgap inspired by how cells pack in biological tissues. The size of the photonic bandgap can be manipulated through thermal and mechanical tuning. These directionally isotropic photonic bandgaps persist in solid and fluid phases, hence giving ...

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Shaping reverberating sound fields with an actively tunable metasurface [Engineering]

26.06.2018 | Guancong Ma; Xiying Fan; Ping Sheng; Mathias Fink, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Wavefront shaping with spatial light modulators has recently motivated many studies in the field of light manipulation in diffusive media. Here, we extend this concept to acoustic waves by designing and building a binary phase-modulating spatial sound modulator (SSM). The SSM is an acoustic ...

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