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27.239 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue

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High rate of translocation-based gene birth on the Drosophila Y chromosome [Evolution]

31.10.2017 | Ray Tobler; Viola Nolte; Christian Schlötterer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The Y chromosome is a unique genetic environment defined by a lack of recombination and male-limited inheritance. The Drosophila Y chromosome has been gradually acquiring genes from the rest of the genome, with only seven Y-linked genes being gained over the past 63 million years (0.12 gene gains ...

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Marine mammal population decline linked to obscured by-catch [Sustainability Science]

31.10.2017 | Stefan Meyer; Bruce C. Robertson; B. Louise Chilvers; Martin Krkošek, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

Declines of marine megafauna due to fisheries by-catch are thought to be mitigated by exclusion devices that release nontarget species. However, exclusion devices may instead conceal negative effects associated with by-catch caused by fisheries (i.e., unobserved or discarded by-catch with low ...

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Speed of the bacterial flagellar motor near zero load depends on the number of stator units [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

31.10.2017 | Ashley L. Nord; Yoshiyuki Sowa; Bradley C. Steel; Chien-Jung Lo; Richard M. Berry, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The bacterial flagellar motor (BFM) rotates hundreds of times per second to propel bacteria driven by an electrochemical ion gradient. The motor consists of a rotor 50 nm in diameter surrounded by up to 11 ion-conducting stator units, which exchange between motors and a membrane-bound pool. ...

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Dynamics and unsteady morphologies at ice interfaces driven by D2O-H2O exchange [Chemistry]

31.10.2017 | Ran Drori; Miranda Holmes-Cerfon; Bart Kahr; Robert V. Kohn; Michael D. Ward, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The growth dynamics of D2O ice in liquid H2O in a microfluidic device were investigated between the melting points of D2O ice (3.8 °C) and H2O ice (0 °C). As the temperature was decreased at rates between 0.002 °C/s and 0.1 °C/s, the ice front advanced but retreated immediately upon...

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Trigger loop dynamics can explain stimulation of intrinsic termination by bacterial RNA polymerase without terminator hairpin contact [Biochemistry]

31.10.2017 | Ananya Ray-Soni; Rachel A. Mooney; Robert Landick, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

In bacteria, intrinsic termination signals cause disassembly of the highly stable elongating transcription complex (EC) over windows of two to three nucleotides after kilobases of RNA synthesis. Intrinsic termination is caused by the formation of a nascent RNA hairpin adjacent to a weak RNA−DNA ...

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Complex evolutionary footprints revealed in an analysis of reused protein segments of diverse lengths [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

31.10.2017 | Sergey Nepomnyachiy; Nir Ben-Tal; Rachel Kolodny, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

Proteins share similar segments with one another. Such “reused parts”—which have been successfully incorporated into other proteins—are likely to offer an evolutionary advantage over de novo evolved segments, as most of the latter will not even have the capacity to fold. To systematically explore ...

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Solving problems in social groups [Social Sciences]

31.10.2017 | Jeroen Bruggeman, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

Humans live and work in groups where they face similar, and often shared, problems, ranging from finding resources to avoiding external threats. To solve a problem at hand, they have to make sense of it and develop an accurate idea of a solution. The wisdom of crowds means that the...

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Multimodal mapping of the brain’s functional connectivity and the adult outcome of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

31.10.2017 | Gustavo Sudre; Eszter Szekely; Wendy Sharp; Steven Kasparek; Philip Shaw, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

We have a limited understanding of why many children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder do not outgrow the disorder by adulthood. Around 20–30% retain the full syndrome as young adults, and about 50% show partial, rather than complete, remission. Here, to delineate the neurobiology of ...

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Mib1 contributes to persistent directional cell migration by regulating the Ctnnd1-Rac1 pathway [Developmental Biology]

31.10.2017 | Takamasa Mizoguchi; Shoko Ikeda; Saori Watanabe; Michiko Sugawara; Motoyuki Itoh, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

Persistent directional cell migration is involved in animal development and diseases. The small GTPase Rac1 is involved in F-actin and focal adhesion dynamics. Local Rac1 activity is required for persistent directional migration, whereas global, hyperactivated Rac1 enhances random cell migration. ...

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Mutagenic cost of ribonucleotides in bacterial DNA [Genetics]

31.10.2017 | Jeremy W. Schroeder; Justin R. Randall; William G. Hirst; Michael E. O’Donnell; Lyle A. Simmons, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

Replicative DNA polymerases misincorporate ribonucleoside triphosphates (rNTPs) into DNA approximately once every 2,000 base pairs synthesized. Ribonucleotide excision repair (RER) removes ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs) from genomic DNA, replacing the error with the appropriate ...

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