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25.359 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue

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Origins of house mice in ecological niches created by settled hunter-gatherers in the Levant 15,000 y ago [Anthropology]

18.04.2017 | Lior Weissbrod; Fiona B. Marshall; François R. Valla; Hamoudi Khalaily; Guy Bar-Oz; Jean-Christophe Auffray; Jean-De ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

Reductions in hunter-gatherer mobility during the Late Pleistocene influenced settlement ecologies, altered human relations with animal communities, and played a pivotal role in domestication. The influence of variability in human mobility on selection dynamics and ecological interactions in ...

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Mass spectrometric identification of intermediates in the O2-driven [4Fe-4S] to [2Fe-2S] cluster conversion in FNR [Biochemistry]

18.04.2017 | Jason C. Crack; Andrew J. Thomson; Nick E. Le Brun, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The iron-sulfur cluster containing protein Fumarate and Nitrate Reduction (FNR) is the master regulator for the switch between anaerobic and aerobic respiration in Escherichia coli and many other bacteria. The [4Fe-4S] cluster functions as the sensory module, undergoing reaction with O2 that ...

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Evolving polycentric governance of the Great Barrier Reef [Sustainability Science]

11.04.2017 | Tiffany H. Morrison, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

A growing field of sustainability science examines how environments are transformed through polycentric governance. However, many studies are only snapshot analyses of the initial design or the emergent structure of polycentric regimes. There is less systematic analysis of the longitudinal ...

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MYO6 is targeted by Salmonella virulence effectors to trigger PI3-kinase signaling and pathogen invasion into host cells [Cell Biology]

11.04.2017 | Andrew B. E. Brooks; Daniel Humphreys; Vikash Singh; Anthony C. Davidson; Susan D. Arden; Folma Buss; Vassilis Koronakis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

To establish infections, Salmonella injects virulence effectors that hijack the host actin cytoskeleton and phosphoinositide signaling to drive pathogen invasion. How effectors reprogram the cytoskeleton network remains unclear. By reconstituting the activities of the Salmonella effector SopE, we ...

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Optical visualization and quantification of enzyme activity using dynamic droplet lenses [Applied Physical Sciences]

11.04.2017 | Lauren D. Zarzar; Julia A. Kalow; Xinping He; Joseph J. Walish; Timothy M. Swager, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

In this paper, we describe an approach to measuring enzyme activity based on the reconfiguration of complex emulsions. Changes in the morphology of these complex emulsions, driven by enzyme-responsive surfactants, modulate the transmission of light through a sample. Through this method we ...

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Mouse-adapted MERS coronavirus causes lethal lung disease in human DPP4 knockin mice [Medical Sciences]

11.04.2017 | Kun Li; Christine L. Wohlford-Lenane; Rudragouda Channappanavar; Jung-Eun Park; James T. Earnest; Thomas B. Bair; Am ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) emerged in Saudi Arabia in 2012, caused by a zoonotically transmitted coronavirus (CoV). Over 1,900 cases have been reported to date, with ∼36% fatality rate. Lack of autopsies from MERS cases has hindered understanding of MERS-CoV pathogenesis. A small ...

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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

11.04.2017 | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

Early Antarctic ice age dynamics Antarctica. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons/Dave Pape. The extent of Antarctic ice sheets oscillated widely on astronomical time scales throughout the Oligocene and Early Miocene Epochs, approximately 34 to 17 million years ago, when comparably large ice ...

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In situ characterization of cofacial Co(IV) centers in Co4O4 cubane: Modeling the high-valent active site in oxygen-evolving catalysts [Chemistry]

11.04.2017 | Casey N. Brodsky; Ryan G. Hadt; Dugan Hayes; Benjamin J. Reinhart; Nancy Li; Lin X. Chen; Daniel G. Nocera, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The Co4O4 cubane is a representative structural model of oxidic cobalt oxygen-evolving catalysts (Co-OECs). The Co-OECs are active when residing at two oxidation levels above an all-Co(III) resting state. This doubly oxidized Co(IV)2 state may be captured in a Co(III)2(IV)2 cubane. We demonstrate ...

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Why the US science and engineering workforce is aging rapidly [Economic Sciences]

11.04.2017 | David M. Blau; Bruce A. Weinberg, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The science and engineering workforce has aged rapidly in recent years, both in absolute terms and relative to the workforce as a whole. This is a potential concern if the large number of older scientists crowds out younger scientists, making it difficult for them to establish independent ...

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Opinion: Let’s march to stress the value of science for the public good, not to engage in partisan politics [Political Sciences]

11.04.2017 | Catherine Rudder, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

Much has been made of the aims of the upcoming March for Science, which is scheduled to take place on April 22 in Washington, DC. Some have argued it’s a terrible idea (1). But the march could serve an important purpose—if organizers and participants succeed in sending the right message...

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