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15.727 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue

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Evidence for close side-chain packing in an early protein folding intermediate previously assumed to be a molten globule [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

14.10.2014 | Laura E. Rosen; Katelyn B. Connell; Susan Marqusee, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The molten globule, a conformational ensemble with significant secondary structure but only loosely packed tertiary structure, has been suggested to be a ubiquitous intermediate in protein folding. However, it is difficult to assess the tertiary packing of transiently populated species to ...

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Are Marine Group II Euryarchaeota significant contributors to tetraether lipids in the ocean? [Biological Sciences]

14.10.2014 | Stefan Schouten; Laura Villanueva; Ellen C. Hopmans; Marcel T. J. van der Meer; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Lincoln et al. (1) claim that Marine Group II Euryarchaeota (MG-II) are significant contributors to glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipids in the ocean and biosynthesize crenarchaeol, a membrane lipid generally attributed to Thaumarchaeota (MG-I). The authors present two lines of ...

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An early sophisticated East Polynesian voyaging canoe discovered on New Zealand's coast [Anthropology]

14.10.2014 | Dilys A. Johns; Geoffrey J. Irwin; Yun K. Sung, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The colonization of the islands of East Polynesia was a remarkable episode in the history of human migration and seafaring. We report on an ocean-sailing canoe dating from close to that time. A large section of a complex composite canoe was discovered recently at Anaweka on the New Zealand ...

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Tree diversity does not always improve resistance of forest ecosystems to drought [Ecology]

14.10.2014 | Charlotte Grossiord; André Granier; Sophia Ratcliffe; Olivier Bouriaud; Helge Bruelheide; Ewa Chećko; David Ian Forr ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Climate models predict an increase in the intensity and frequency of drought episodes in the Northern Hemisphere. Among terrestrial ecosystems, forests will be profoundly impacted by drier climatic conditions, with drastic consequences for the functions and services they supply. Simultaneously, ...

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Structure of nicastrin unveils secrets of {gamma}-secretase [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

14.10.2014 | David M. Bolduc; Michael S. Wolfe, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Despite afflicting tens of millions worldwide, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remains a devastating brain-destroying malady with no effective treatment or cure. A central hallmark of AD is the deposition of amyloid plaques in the brain. These plaques are primarily composed of the amyloid β-peptide ...

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Modulation of age-related insulin sensitivity by VEGF-dependent vascular plasticity in adipose tissues [Medical Sciences]

14.10.2014 | Jennifer Honek; Takahiro Seki; Hideki Iwamoto; Carina Fischer; Jingrong Li; Sharon Lim; Nilesh J. Samani; Jingwu Zan ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Mechanisms underlying age-related obesity and insulin resistance are generally unknown. Here, we report age-related adipose vascular changes markedly modulated fat mass, adipocyte functions, blood lipid composition, and insulin sensitivity. Notably, VEGF expression levels in various white adipose ...

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H-ferritin-nanocaged doxorubicin nanoparticles specifically target and kill tumors with a single-dose inȷection [Medical Sciences]

14.10.2014 | Minmin Liang; Kelong Fan; Meng Zhou; Demin Duan; Jiyan Zheng; Dongling Yang; Jing Feng; Xiyun Yan, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

An ideal nanocarrier for efficient drug delivery must be able to target specific cells and carry high doses of therapeutic drugs and should also exhibit optimized physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. However, it is a tremendous challenge to engineer all of the above characteristics ...

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Vitamin D prevents cognitive decline and enhances hippocampal synaptic function in aging rats [Neuroscience]

14.10.2014 | Caitlin S. Latimer; Lawrence D. Brewer; James L. Searcy; Kuey-Chu Chen; Jelena Popović; Susan D. Kraner; Olivier Thi ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Vitamin D is an important calcium-regulating hormone with diverse functions in numerous tissues, including the brain. Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D may play a role in maintaining cognitive function and that vitamin D deficiency may accelerate age-related cognitive decline. Using ...

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On inference of causality for discrete state models in a multiscale context [Applied Mathematics]

14.10.2014 | Susanne Gerber; Illia Horenko, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Discrete state models are a common tool of modeling in many areas. E.g., Markov state models as a particular representative of this model family became one of the major instruments for analysis and understanding of processes in molecular dynamics (MD). Here we extend the scope of discrete state ...

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Proteopathic tau seeding predicts tauopathy in vivo [Neuroscience]

14.10.2014 | Brandon B. Holmes; Jennifer L. Furman; Thomas E. Mahan; Tritia R. Yamasaki; Hilda Mirbaha; William C. Eades; Larisa ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Transcellular propagation of protein aggregates, or proteopathic seeds, may drive the progression of neurodegenerative diseases in a prion-like manner. In tauopathies such as Alzheimer’s disease, this model predicts that tau seeds propagate pathology through the brain via cell–cell transfer in ...

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