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16.119 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue

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Asymmetric hindwing foldings in rove beetles [Engineering]

18.11.2014 | Kazuya Saito; Shuhei Yamamoto; Munetoshi Maruyama; Yoji Okabe, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Foldable wings of insects are the ultimate deployable structures and have attracted the interest of aerospace engineering scientists as well as entomologists. Rove beetles are known to fold their wings in the most sophisticated ways that have right–left asymmetric patterns. However, the specific ...

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Reply to Skoyles: Decline in growth rate, not muscle mass, predicts the human childhood peak in brain metabolism [Social Sciences]

18.11.2014 | Christopher W. Kuzawa; Harry T. Chugani; Lawrence I. Grossman; Leonard Lipovich; Otto Muzik; Patrick R. Hof; Derek E ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

In his letter addressing our recent paper (1), Skoyles (2) rightfully notes that growth expenditure is a small fraction of what the brain requires at the ages of slowest human body growth during childhood. We are puzzled by the suggestion that this fact challenges the premise of our ...

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Wild chimpanzees plan their breakfast time, type, and location [Anthropology]

18.11.2014 | Karline R. L. Janmaat; Leo Polansky; Simone Dagui Ban; Christophe Boesch, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Not all tropical fruits are equally desired by rainforest foragers and some fruit trees get depleted more quickly and carry fruit for shorter periods than others. We investigated whether a ripe-fruit specialist, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus), arrived earlier at breakfast sites with very ...

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Single-cell mass cytometry of TCR signaling: Amplification of small initial differences results in low ERK activation in NOD mice [Immunology and Inflammation]

18.11.2014 | Michael Mingueneau; Smita Krishnaswamy; Matthew H. Spitzer; Sean C. Bendall; Erica L. Stone; Stephen M. Hedrick; Dan ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Signaling from the T-cell receptor (TCR) conditions T-cell differentiation and activation, requiring exquisite sensitivity and discrimination. Using mass cytometry, a high-dimensional technique that can probe multiple signaling nodes at the single-cell level, we interrogate TCR signaling dynamics ...

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The Runt-related transcription factor 1 in prostate cancer-associated fibroblasts [Cell Biology]

18.11.2014 | Hilary A. Coller, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Although most carcinomas arise from a series of genetic alterations in epithelial cells, cancer is a disease that affects not just the transformed cells themselves, but the entire tissue. During tumor development, reciprocal signaling patterns between the cancer cells and the surrounding tissue ...

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Molecular determinants of caspase-9 activation by the Apaf-1 apoptosome [Biochemistry]

18.11.2014 | Qi Hu; Di Wu; Wen Chen; Zhen Yan; Chuangye Yan; Tianxi He; Qionglin Liang; Yigong Shi, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Autocatalytic activation of an initiator caspase triggers the onset of apoptosis. In dying cells, caspase-9 activation is mediated by a multimeric adaptor complex known as the Apaf-1 apoptosome. The molecular mechanism by which caspase-9 is activated by the Apaf-1 apoptosome remains largely ...

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Gene coexpression measures in large heterogeneous samples using count statistics [Statistics]

18.11.2014 | Y. X. Rachel Wang; Michael S. Waterman; Haiyan Huang, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

With the advent of high-throughput technologies making large-scale gene expression data readily available, developing appropriate computational tools to process these data and distill insights into systems biology has been an important part of the “big data” challenge. Gene coexpression is one of ...

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Forward genetic screens in mice uncover mediators and suppressors of metastatic reactivation [Medical Sciences]

18.11.2014 | Hua Gao; Goutam Chakraborty; Ai Ping Lee-Lim; Konstantinos J. Mavrakis; Hans-Guido Wendel; Filippo G. Giancotti, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

We have developed a screening platform for the isolation of genetic entities involved in metastatic reactivation. Retroviral libraries of cDNAs from fully metastatic breast-cancer cells or pooled microRNAs were transduced into breast-cancer cells that become dormant upon infiltrating the lung. ...

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Ventromedial prefrontal cortex supports affective future simulation by integrating distributed knowledge [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

18.11.2014 | Roland G. Benoit; Karl K. Szpunar; Daniel L. Schacter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Although the future often seems intangible, we can make it more concrete by imagining prospective events. Here, using functional MRI, we demonstrate a mechanism by which the ventromedial prefrontal cortex supports such episodic simulations, and thereby contributes to affective foresight: This ...

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Cannabinoid CB2 receptors modulate midbrain dopamine neuronal activity and dopamine-related behavior in mice [Neuroscience]

18.11.2014 | Hai-Ying Zhang; Ming Gao; Qing-Rong Liu; Guo-Hua Bi; Xia Li; Hong-Ju Yang; Eliot L. Gardner; Jie Wu; Zheng-Xiong Xi, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2Rs) have been recently reported to modulate brain dopamine (DA)-related behaviors; however, the cellular mechanisms underlying these actions are unclear. Here we report that CB2Rs are expressed in ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons and functionally modulate DA ...

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