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24.862 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue

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How electron two-stream instability drives cyclic Langmuir collapse and continuous coherent emission [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

14.02.2017 | Haihong Che; Melvyn L. Goldstein; Patrick H. Diamond; Roald Z. Sagdeev, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

Continuous plasma coherent emission is maintained by repetitive Langmuir collapse driven by the nonlinear evolution of a strong electron two-stream instability. The Langmuir waves are modulated by solitary waves in the linear stage and electrostatic whistler waves in the nonlinear stage. ...

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A mechanism for the induction of type 2 immune responses by a protease allergen in the genital tract [Immunology and Inflammation]

14.02.2017 | Ji Eun Oh; Dong Sun Oh; Hi Eun Jung; Heung Kyu Lee, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The genital mucosa is a barrier that is constantly exposed to a variety of pathogens, allergens, and external stimuli. Although both allergen exposure and parasite infections frequently occur in the genital area, the mechanism by which immune responses—particularly type 2 immunity—are induced has ...

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Binding, sliding, and function of cohesin during transcriptional activation [Biochemistry]

14.02.2017 | Melinda S. Borrie; John S. Campor; Hansa Joshi; Marc R. Gartenberg, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The ring-shaped cohesin complex orchestrates long-range DNA interactions to mediate sister chromatid cohesion and other aspects of chromosome structure and function. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the complex binds discrete sites along chromosomes, including positions within and around ...

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Profile of Bruce M. Alberts, 2016 Lasker-Koshland Special Achievement Award in Medical Science Awardee [Profiles]

14.02.2017 | Shirley M. Tilghman, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

On September 23, 2016, Bruce M. Alberts was presented with the Lasker-Koshland Special Achievement Award in Medical Science, which honored him for “fundamental discoveries in DNA replication and protein biochemistry; for visionary leadership in directing national and international scientific ...

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Dissection of neuronal gap junction circuits that regulate social behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans [Neuroscience]

14.02.2017 | Heeun Jang; Sagi Levy; Steven W. Flavell; Fanny Mende; Richard Latham; Manuel Zimmer; Cornelia I. Bargmann, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

A hub-and-spoke circuit of neurons connected by gap junctions controls aggregation behavior and related behavioral responses to oxygen, pheromones, and food in Caenorhabditis elegans. The molecular composition of the gap junctions connecting RMG hub neurons with sensory spoke neurons is unknown. ...

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Interleukin-37 suppresses the osteogenic responses of human aortic valve interstitial cells in vitro and alleviates valve lesions in mice [Immunology and Inflammation]

14.02.2017 | Qingchun Zeng; Rui Song; David A. Fullerton; Lihua Ao; Yufeng Zhai; Suzhao Li; Dov B. Ballak; Joseph C. Cleveland Jr ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

Calcific aortic valve disease is a chronic inflammatory process, and aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) from diseased aortic valves express greater levels of osteogenic factors in response to proinflammatory stimulation. Here, we report that lower cellular levels of IL-37 in AVICs of ...

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Single polysaccharide assembly protein that integrates polymerization, termination, and chain-length quality control [Microbiology]

14.02.2017 | Danielle M. Williams; Olga G. Ovchinnikova; Akihiko Koizumi; Iain L. Mainprize; Matthew S. Kimber; Todd L. Lowary; C ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are essential outer membrane glycolipids in most gram-negative bacteria. Biosynthesis of the O-antigenic polysaccharide (OPS) component of LPS follows one of three widely distributed strategies, and similar processes are used to assemble other bacterial surface ...

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Endothelium-targeted overexpression of heat shock protein 27 ameliorates blood-brain barrier disruption after ischemic brain inȷury [Neuroscience]

14.02.2017 | Yejie Shi; Xiaoyan Jiang; Lili Zhang; Hongjian Pu; Xiaoming Hu; Wenting Zhang; Wei Cai; Yanqin Gao; Rehana K. Leak; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The damage borne by the endothelial cells (ECs) forming the blood–brain barrier (BBB) during ischemic stroke and other neurological conditions disrupts the structure and function of the neurovascular unit and contributes to poor patient outcomes. We recently reported that structural aberrations ...

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Double paradigm shift for the antibiotics’ activity on viruses: Zika’s lesson [Biological Sciences]

14.02.2017 | Didier Raoult, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The PNAS paper by Retallack et al. on the activity of azithromycin on Zika is critical (1). The activity of antibiotics was initially determined on bacteria. Natural antibiotics all have nonribosomal peptides (2) using atypical amino acids and their structural motifs are extremely archaic (3). ...

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ADP-ribosylhydrolase activity of Chikungunya virus macrodomain is critical for virus replication and virulence [Microbiology]

14.02.2017 | Robert Lyle McPherson; Rachy Abraham; Easwaran Sreekumar; Shao-En Ong; Shang-Jung Cheng; Victoria K. Baxter; Hans A. ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an Old World alphavirus, is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes and causes acute rash and arthritis, occasionally complicated by neurologic disease and chronic arthritis. One determinant of alphavirus virulence is nonstructural protein 3 (nsP3) that contains a ...

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