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23.316 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue

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Ammonium and nitrite oxidation at nanomolar oxygen concentrations in oxygen minimum zone waters [Environmental Sciences]

20.09.2016 | Laura A. Bristow; Tage Dalsgaard; Laura Tiano; Daniel B. Mills; Anthony D. Bertagnolli; Jody J. Wright; Steven J. Ha ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

A major percentage of fixed nitrogen (N) loss in the oceans occurs within nitrite-rich oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) via denitrification and anammox. It remains unclear to what extent ammonium and nitrite oxidation co-occur, either supplying or competing for substrates involved in nitrogen loss in ...

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Olivine anisotropy suggests Gutenberg discontinuity is not the base of the lithosphere [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

20.09.2016 | Lars N. Hansen; Chao Qi; Jessica M. Warren, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Tectonic plates are a key feature of Earth’s structure, and their behavior and dynamics are fundamental drivers in a wide range of large-scale processes. The operation of plate tectonics, in general, depends intimately on the manner in which lithospheric plates couple to the convecting interior. ...

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Rabex-5 is a lenalidomide target molecule that negatively regulates TLR-induced type 1 IFN production [Immunology and Inflammation]

20.09.2016 | David Millrine; Mami Tei; Yohannes Gemechu; Tadamitsu Kishimoto, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) are a family of compounds derived from thalidomide. Binding of the IMiD molecule to the Lon protease Cereblon initiates the degradation of substrates via the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Here, we show that Cereblon forms a complex with Rabex-5, a regulator of ...

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GluA1 signal peptide determines the spatial assembly of heteromeric AMPA receptors [Neuroscience]

20.09.2016 | Xue-Yan He; Yan-Jun Li; Chakrapani Kalyanaraman; Li-Li Qiu; Chen Chen; Qi Xiao; Wen-Xue Liu; Wei Zhang; Jian-Jun Yan ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission and predominantly assemble as heterotetramers in the brain. Recently, the crystal structures of homotetrameric GluA2 demonstrated that AMPARs are assembled with two pairs of conformationally distinct subunits, in a ...

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Relationship between intelligence and spectral characteristics of brain biophoton emission: Correlation does not automatically imply causation [Biological Sciences]

20.09.2016 | Vahid Salari; István Bókkon; Roohollah Ghobadi; Felix Scholkmann; Jack A. Tuszynski, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Despite enormous efforts, any correlation between “intelligence” and cognitive or physiological/anatomical properties of animal brains is still poorly understood because intelligence depends on multiple factors in parallel and not a single determinant (1). The study by Wang et al. (2) is both ...

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In B cells, phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase-{alpha} synthesizes PI(4,5)P2 to impact mTORC2 and Akt signaling [Cell Biology]

20.09.2016 | Simon J. Bulley; Alaa Droubi; Jonathan H. Clarke; Karen E. Anderson; Len R. Stephens; Phillip T. Hawkins; Robin F. I ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinases (PI5P4Ks) are enigmatic lipid kinases with physiological functions that are incompletely understood, not the least because genetic deletion and cell transfection have led to contradictory data. Here, we used the genetic tractability of DT40 cells to ...

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Sufficient trial size to inform clinical practice [Medical Sciences]

20.09.2016 | Charles F. Manski; Aleksey Tetenov, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Medical research has evolved conventions for choosing sample size in randomized clinical trials that rest on the theory of hypothesis testing. Bayesian statisticians have argued that trials should be designed to maximize subjective expected utility in settings of clinical interest. This ...

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SCAP/SREBP pathway is required for the full steroidogenic response to cyclic AMP [Pharmacology]

20.09.2016 | Masami Shimizu-Albergine; Brian Van Yserloo; Martin G. Golkowski; Shao-En Ong; Joseph A. Beavo; Karin E. Bornfeldt, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates steroidogenesis largely through a surge in cyclic AMP (cAMP). Steroidogenic rates are also critically dependent on the availability of cholesterol at mitochondrial sites of synthesis. This cholesterol is provided by cellular uptake of lipoproteins, mobilization ...

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Covalent bonds against magnetism in transition metal compounds [Chemistry]

20.09.2016 | Sergey V. Streltsov; Daniel I. Khomskii, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Magnetism in transition metal compounds is usually considered starting from a description of isolated ions, as exact as possible, and treating their (exchange) interaction at a later stage. We show that this standard approach may break down in many cases, especially in 4d and 5d compounds. We ...

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Inner Workings: Can single molecules bind together entire ecosystems? [Environmental Sciences]

20.09.2016 | Jyoti Madhusoodanan, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Off the coast of California, puffy slug-like creatures—named sea hares (Aplysia californica) for their bunny ear-like tentacles—chomp their way across underwater fields of red-brown algae. The algae produce mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), chemicals that give the sea hares their murky maroon ...

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