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Evidence of Kinetic Cooperativity in Dimeric Ketopantoate Reductase from Staphylococcus aureus

21.05.2015 | Joseph E. Sanchez; Phillip G. Gross; Russell W. Goetze; Richard M. Walsh, Jr.; William B. Peeples; Zachary A. Wood, Biochemistry, 2015

Ketopantoate reductase (KPR) catalyzes the NADPH-dependent production of pantoate, an essential precursor in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A. Previous structural studies have been limited to Escherichia coli KPR, a monomeric enzyme that follows a sequential ordered mechanism. Here we report the ...


Subunit Interactions within the Carbon–Phosphorus Lyase Complex from Escherichia coli

19.05.2015 | Zhongjie Ren; Soumya Ranganathan; Nathanael F. Zinnel; William K. Russell; David H. Russell; Frank M. Raushel, Biochemistry, 2015

Phosphonates are a large class of organophosphorus compounds with a characteristic carbon–phosphorus bond. The genes responsible for phosphonate utilization in Gram-negative bacteria are arranged in an operon of 14 genes. The carbon–phosphorus lyase complex, encoded by the genes phnGHIJKLM, ...


Cryo-Electron Microscopy and the Amazing Race to Atomic Resolution

14.05.2015 | Elad Binshtein; Melanie D. Ohi, Biochemistry, 2015

Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), the structural analysis of samples embedded in vitreous ice, is a powerful approach for determining three-dimensional (3D) structures of biological specimens. Over the past two decades, this technique has been used to successfully calculate subnanometer ...


Oligomers of Parkinson’s Disease-Related α-Synuclein Mutants Have Similar Structures but Distinctive Membrane Permeabilization Properties

14.05.2015 | Anja N. D. Stefanovic; Saskia Lindhoud; Slav A. Semerdzhiev; Mireille M. A. E. Claessens; Vinod Subramaniam, Biochemistry, 2015

Single-amino acid mutations in the human α-synuclein (αS) protein are related to early onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). In addition to the well-known A30P, A53T, and E46K mutants, recently a number of new familial disease-related αS mutations have been discovered. How these mutations affect the ...


Cation Binding to Halorhodopsin

11.05.2015 | Sansa Dutta; Lev Weiner; Mordechai Sheves, Biochemistry, 2015

A member of the retinal protein family, halorhodopsin, acts as an inward light-driven Cl– pump. It was recently demonstrated that the Natronomonas pharaonis halorhodopsin-overproducing mutant strain KM-1 contains, in addition to the retinal chromophore, a lipid soluble chromophore, ...


A Transporter Motor Taken Apart: Flexibility in the Nucleotide Binding Domains of a Heterodimeric ABC Exporter

07.05.2015 | Magdalena A. Bukowska; Michael Hohl; Eric R. Geertsma; Lea M. Hürlimann; Markus G. Grütter; Markus A. Seeger, Biochemistry, 2015

ABC exporters are ubiquitous multidomain transport proteins that couple ATP hydrolysis at a pair of nucleotide binding domains to substrate transport across the lipid bilayer mediated by two transmembrane domains. Recently, the crystal structure of the heterodimeric ABC exporter TM287/288 was ...


Understanding and Engineering Thermostability in DNA Ligase from Thermococcus sp. 1519

05.05.2015 | Hassan Pezeshgi Modarres; Boris D. Dorokhov; Vladimir O. Popov; Nikolai V. Ravin; Konstantin G. Skryabin; Matteo Dal ..., Biochemistry, 2015

The physical chemical principles underlying enzymatic thermostability are keys to understand the way evolution has shaped proteins to adapt to a broad range of temperatures. Understanding the molecular determinants at the basis of protein thermostability is also an important factor for ...


Kinetic and Structural Basis for Acyl-Group Selectivity and NAD+ Dependence in Sirtuin-Catalyzed Deacylation

04.05.2015 | Jessica L. Feldman; Kristin E. Dittenhafer-Reed; Norio Kudo; Julie N. Thelen; Akihiro Ito; Minoru Yoshida; John M. Denu, Biochemistry, 2015

Acylation of lysine is an important protein modification regulating diverse biological processes. It was recently demonstrated that members of the human Sirtuin family are capable of catalyzing long chain deacylation, in addition to the well-known NAD+-dependent deacetylation activity [Feldman, ...


Tuning the Production of Variable Length, Fluorescent Polyisoprenoids Using Surfactant-Controlled Enzymatic Synthesis

29.04.2015 | Jerry M. Troutman; Katelyn M. Erickson; Phillip M. Scott; Joseph M. Hazel; Christina D. Martinez; Samantha Dodbele, Biochemistry, 2015

Bactoprenyl diphosphate (BPP), a two-E eight-Z configuration C55 isoprenoid, serves as a critical anchor for the biosynthesis of complex glycans central to bacterial survival and pathogenesis. BPP is formed by the polymerase undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UppS), which catalyzes the ...


Abscisic Acid Acts as a Blocker of the Bitter Taste G Protein-Coupled Receptor T2R4

13.04.2015 | Sai P. Pydi; Appalaraju Jaggupilli; Ken M. Nelson; Suzanne R. Abrams; Rajinder P. Bhullar; Michele C. Loewen; Prashe ..., Biochemistry, 2015

Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) belong to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. In humans, 25 T2Rs mediate bitter taste sensation. In addition to the oral cavity, T2Rs are expressed in many extraoral tissues, including the central nervous system, respiratory system, and reproductive system. ...


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