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ABHD4 Regulates Multiple Classes of N-Acyl Phospholipids in the Mammalian Central Nervous System

08.04.2015 | Hyeon-Cheol Lee; Gabriel M. Simon; Benjamin F. Cravatt, Biochemistry, 2015

N-Acyl phospholipids are atypical components of cell membranes that bear three acyl chains and serve as potential biosynthetic precursors for lipid mediators such as endocannabinoids. Biochemical studies have implicated ABHD4 as a brain N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) lipase, but in vivo ...


Understanding Thermosensitive Transient Receptor Potential Channels as Versatile Polymodal Cellular Sensors

03.04.2015 | Jacob K. Hilton; Parthasarathi Rath; Cole V. M. Helsell; Oliver Beckstein; Wade D. Van Horn, Biochemistry, 2015

Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are eukaryotic polymodal sensors that function as molecular cellular signal integrators. TRP family members sense and are modulated by a wide array of inputs, including temperature, pressure, pH, voltage, chemicals, lipids, and other proteins. These ...


Enzymatic Oxidation of Methane

01.04.2015 | Sarah Sirajuddin; Amy C. Rosenzweig, Biochemistry, 2015

Methane monooxygenases (MMOs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria. As potential targets for new gas-to-liquid methane bioconversion processes, MMOs have attracted intense attention in recent years. There are two distinct types of MMO, a ...


Adaptive Mutations Alter Antibody Structure and Dynamics during Affinity Maturation

10.03.2015 | Ramkrishna Adhikary; Wayne Yu; Masayuki Oda; Ross C. Walker; Tingjian Chen; Robyn L. Stanfield; Ian A. Wilson; Jörg ..., Biochemistry, 2015

While adaptive mutations can bestow new functions on proteins via the introduction or optimization of reactive centers, or other structural changes, a role for the optimization of protein dynamics also seems likely but has been more difficult to evaluate. Antibody (Ab) affinity maturation is an ...


Overexpression in Yeast, Photocycle, and in Vitro Structural Change of an Avian Putative Magnetoreceptor Cryptochrome4

04.03.2015 | Hiromasa Mitsui; Toshinori Maeda; Chiaki Yamaguchi; Yusuke Tsuji; Ryuji Watari; Yoko Kubo; Keiko Okano; Toshiyuki Okano, Biochemistry, 2015

Cryptochromes (CRYs) have been found in a wide variety of living organisms and can function as blue light photoreceptors, circadian clock molecules, or magnetoreceptors. Non-mammalian vertebrates have CRY4 in addition to the CRY1 and CRY2 circadian clock components. Though the function of CRY4 is ...


Analysis of the Radiation-Damage-Free X-ray Structure of Photosystem II in Light of EXAFS and QM/MM Data

27.02.2015 | Mikhail Askerka; David J. Vinyard; Jimin Wang; Gary W. Brudvig; Victor S. Batista, Biochemistry, 2015

A recent femtosecond X-ray diffraction study produced the first high-resolution structural model of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II that is free of radiation-induced manganese reduction (Protein Data Bank entries 4UB6 and 4UB8). We find, however, that the model does not match ...


Mechanistic Insights into the Lipid Interaction of an Ancient Saposin-like Protein

26.02.2015 | Matthias Michalek; Matthias Leippe, Biochemistry, 2015

The members of the expanding family of saposin-like proteins (SAPLIPs) have various biological functions in plants, animals, and humans. In addition to a similar protein backbone, these proteins have in common the fact that they interact with lipid membranes. According to their phylogenetic ...


Circadian Clock and Photoperiodic Response in Arabidopsis: From Seasonal Flowering to Redox Homeostasis

30.12.2014 | Jae Sung Shim; Takato Imaizumi, Biochemistry, 2014

Many of the developmental responses and behaviors in plants that occur throughout the year are controlled by photoperiod; among these, seasonal flowering is the most characterized. Molecular genetic and biochemical analyses have revealed the mechanisms by which plants sense changes in day length ...


Cluster III of Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1 Binds Activated Blood Coagulation Factor VIII

23.12.2014 | James H. Kurasawa; Svetlana A. Shestopal; Samuel A. Woodle; Mikhail V. Ovanesov; Timothy K. Lee; Andrey G. Sarafanov, Biochemistry, 2014

Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP) mediates clearance of blood coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). In LRP, FVIII binds the complement-type repeats (CRs) of clusters II and IV, which also bind a majority of other LRP ligands. No ligand is known for LRP cluster I, and only three ...


Characterizing Substrate Selectivity of Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L3 Using Engineered α-Linked Ubiquitin Substrates

17.12.2014 | Mario F. Navarro; Lisa Carmody; Octavio Romo-Fewell; Melissa E. Lokensgard; John J. Love, Biochemistry, 2014

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is highly complex and entails the concerted actions of many enzymes that function to ubiquitinate proteins targeted to the proteasome as well as enzymes that remove and recycle ubiquitin for additional rounds of proteolysis. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L3 ...


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