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374 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen zum Thema temperature

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Limited tolerance by insects to high temperatures across tropical elevational gradients and the implications of global warming for extinction [Ecology]

19.01.2016 | Carlos García-Robledo; Erin K. Kuprewicz; Charles L. Staines; Terry L. Erwin; W. John Kress, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The critical thermal maximum (CTmax), the temperature at which motor control is lost in animals, has the potential to determine if species will tolerate global warming. For insects, tolerance to high temperatures decreases with latitude, suggesting that similar patterns may exist along ...

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How faceted liquid droplets grow tails [Applied Physical Sciences]

19.01.2016 | Shani Guttman; Zvi Sapir; Moty Schultz; Alexander V. Butenko; Benjamin M. Ocko; Moshe Deutsch; Eli Sloutskin, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Liquid droplets, widely encountered in everyday life, have no flat facets. Here we show that water-dispersed oil droplets can be reversibly temperature-tuned to icosahedral and other faceted shapes, hitherto unreported for liquid droplets. These shape changes are shown to originate in the ...

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Cryptochrome 1 interacts with PIF4 to regulate high temperature-mediated hypocotyl elongation in response to blue light [Plant Biology]

05.01.2016 | Dingbang Ma; Xu Li; Yongxia Guo; Jingfang Chu; Shuang Fang; Cunyu Yan; Joseph P. Noel; Hongtao Liu, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) is a blue light receptor that mediates primarily blue-light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Very little is known of the mechanisms by which CRY1 affects growth. Blue light and temperature are two key environmental signals that profoundly affect plant growth and ...

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Metabolic heat production and thermal conductance are mass-independent adaptations to thermal environment in birds and mammals [Ecology]

29.12.2015 | Trevor S. Fristoe; Joseph R. Burger; Meghan A. Balk; Imran Khaliq; Christian Hof; James H. Brown, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The extent to which different kinds of organisms have adapted to environmental temperature regimes is central to understanding how they respond to climate change. The Scholander–Irving (S-I) model of heat transfer lays the foundation for explaining how endothermic birds and mammals maintain their ...

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Ab initio optimization of phonon drag effect for lower-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion [Applied Physical Sciences]

01.12.2015 | Jiawei Zhou; Bolin Liao; Bo Qiu; Samuel Huberman; Keivan Esfarjani; Mildred S. Dresselhaus; Gang Chen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Although the thermoelectric figure of merit zT above 300 K has seen significant improvement recently, the progress at lower temperatures has been slow, mainly limited by the relatively low Seebeck coefficient and high thermal conductivity. Here we report, for the first time to our knowledge, ...

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Ultraflexible, large-area, physiological temperature sensors for multipoint measurements [Engineering]

24.11.2015 | Tomoyuki Yokota; Yusuke Inoue; Yuki Terakawa; Jonathan Reeder; Martin Kaltenbrunner; Taylor Ware; Kejia Yang; Kunihi ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

We report a fabrication method for flexible and printable thermal sensors based on composites of semicrystalline acrylate polymers and graphite with a high sensitivity of 20 mK and a high-speed response time of less than 100 ms. These devices exhibit large resistance changes near body temperature ...

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Universal spectrum of normal modes in low-temperature glasses [Physics]

24.11.2015 | Silvio Franz; Giorgio Parisi; Pierfrancesco Urbani; Francesco Zamponi, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

We report an analytical study of the vibrational spectrum of the simplest model of jamming, the soft perceptron. We identify two distinct classes of soft modes. The first kind of modes are related to isostaticity and appear only in the close vicinity of the jamming transition. The second kind ...

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Temperature compensation and temperature sensation in the circadian clock [Cell Biology]

17.11.2015 | Philip B. Kidd; Michael W. Young; Eric D. Siggia, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

All known circadian clocks have an endogenous period that is remarkably insensitive to temperature, a property known as temperature compensation, while at the same time being readily entrained by a diurnal temperature oscillation. Although temperature compensation and entrainment are defining ...

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High-temperature in situ crystallographic observation of reversible gas sorption in impermeable organic cages [Chemistry]

17.11.2015 | Seung Bin Baek; Dohyun Moon; Robert Graf; Woo Jong Cho; Sung Woo Park; Tae-Ung Yoon; Seung Joo Cho; In-Chul Hwang; Y ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Crystallographic observation of adsorbed gas molecules is a highly difficult task due to their rapid motion. Here, we report the in situ single-crystal and synchrotron powder X-ray observations of reversible CO2 sorption processes in an apparently nonporous organic crystal under varying pressures ...

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Cyclic deformation leads to defect healing and strengthening of small-volume metal crystals [Engineering]

03.11.2015 | Zhang-Jie Wang; Qing-Jie Li; Yi-Nan Cui; Zhan-Li Liu; Evan Ma; Ju Li; Jun Sun; Zhuo Zhuang; Ming Dao; Zhi-Wei Shan; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

When microscopic and macroscopic specimens of metals are subjected to cyclic loading, the creation, interaction, and accumulation of defects lead to damage, cracking, and failure. Here we demonstrate that when aluminum single crystals of submicrometer dimensions are subjected to low-amplitude ...

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