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99 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen zum Thema temperature

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[Report] Eddy-driven subduction exports particulate organic carbon from the spring bloom

10.04.2015 | Melissa M. Omand; Eric A. D’Asaro; Craig M. Lee; Mary Jane Perry; Nathan Briggs; Ivona Cetinić; Amala Mahadevan, Science , 2015

The export of particulate organic carbon (POC) from the surface ocean to depth is traditionally ascribed to sinking. Here, we show that a dynamic eddying flow field subducts surface water with high concentrations of nonsinking POC. Autonomous observations made by gliders during the North Atlantic ...

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[Report] Molecular nitrogen in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko indicates a low formation temperature

10.04.2015 | M. Rubin; K. Altwegg; H. Balsiger; A. Bar-Nun; J.-J. Berthelier; A. Bieler; P. Bochsler; C. Briois; U. Calmonte; M. ..., Science , 2015

Molecular nitrogen (N2) is thought to have been the most abundant form of nitrogen in the protosolar nebula. It is the main N-bearing molecule in the atmospheres of Pluto and Triton and probably the main nitrogen reservoir from which the giant planets formed. Yet in comets, often considered the ...

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[Report] Dense dislocation arrays embedded in grain boundaries for high-performance bulk thermoelectrics

03.04.2015 | Sang Il Kim; Kyu Hyoung Lee; Hyeon A Mun; Hyun Sik Kim; Sung Woo Hwang; Jong Wook Roh; Dae Jin Yang; Weon Ho Shin; X ..., Science , 2015

The widespread use of thermoelectric technology is constrained by a relatively low conversion efficiency of the bulk alloys, which is evaluated in terms of a dimensionless figure of merit (zT). The zT of bulk alloys can be improved by reducing lattice thermal conductivity through grain boundary ...

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[Report] Mechanisms of antiwear tribofilm growth revealed in situ by single-asperity sliding contacts

03.04.2015 | N. N. Gosvami; J. A. Bares; F. Mangolini; A. R. Konicek; D. G. Yablon; R. W. Carpick, Science , 2015

Zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDPs) form antiwear tribofilms at sliding interfaces and are widely used as additives in automotive lubricants. The mechanisms governing the tribofilm growth are not well understood, which limits the development of replacements that offer better performance and are ...

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[Perspective] Tracking antiwear film formation

03.04.2015 | Udo D. Schwarz, Science , 2015

Lubrication has been practiced since the early days of human civilization (1); for example, heavy objects were moved more easily on wooden or stone floors by spreading water onto the surface. In the early 20th century, the advent of the internal combustion engine and its long periods of operation ...

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[Report] Large thermal Hall conductivity of neutral spin excitations in a frustrated quantum magnet

03.04.2015 | Max Hirschberger; Jason W. Krizan; R. J. Cava; N. P. Ong, Science , 2015

In frustrated quantum magnets, long-range magnetic order fails to develop despite a large exchange coupling between the spins. In contrast to the magnons in conventional magnets, their spin excitations are poorly understood. Here, we show that the thermal Hall conductivity κxy provides a powerful ...

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[Research Article] Dynamic DNA devices and assemblies formed by shape-complementary, non–base pairing 3D components

27.03.2015 | Thomas Gerling; Klaus F. Wagenbauer; Andrea M. Neuner; Hendrik Dietz, Science , 2015

We demonstrate that discrete three-dimensional (3D) DNA components can specifically self-assemble in solution on the basis of shape-complementarity and without base pairing. Using this principle, we produced homo- and heteromultimeric objects, including micrometer-scale one- and two-stranded ...

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[Report] Chirality density wave of the “hidden order” phase in URu2Si2

20.03.2015 | H.-H. Kung; R. E. Baumbach; E. D. Bauer; V. K. Thorsmølle; W.-L. Zhang; K. Haule; J. A. Mydosh; G. Blumberg, Science , 2015

A second-order phase transition in a physical system is associated with the emergence of an “order parameter” and a spontaneous symmetry breaking. The heavy fermion superconductor URu2Si2 has a “hidden order” (HO) phase below the temperature of 17.5 kelvin; the symmetry of the associated order ...

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[Report] Experimental ground-state combination differences of CH5+

20.03.2015 | Oskar Asvany; Koichi M. T. Yamada; Sandra Brünken; Alexey Potapov; Stephan Schlemmer, Science , 2015

Protonation of methane (CH4), a rather rigid molecule well described by quantum mechanics, produces CH5+, a prototypical floppy molecule that has eluded definitive spectroscopic description. Experimental measurement of high-resolution spectra of pure CH5+ samples poses a formidable challenge. By ...

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[Report] Coulomb crystallization of highly charged ions

13.03.2015 | L. Schmöger; O. O. Versolato; M. Schwarz; M. Kohnen; A. Windberger; B. Piest; S. Feuchtenbeiner; J. Pedregosa-Gutier ..., Science , 2015

Control over the motional degrees of freedom of atoms, ions, and molecules in a field-free environment enables unrivalled measurement accuracies but has yet to be applied to highly charged ions (HCIs), which are of particular interest to future atomic clock designs and searches for physics beyond ...

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