Noninvasive Diagnosis of High-Grade Urothelial Carcinoma in Urine by Raman Spectral Imaging
The current gold standard for the diagnosis of bladder cancer is cystoscopy, which is invasive and painful for patients. Therefore, noninvasive urine cytology is usually used in the clinic as an adjunct to cystoscopy; however, it suffers from low sensitivity. Here, a novel noninvasive, label-free approach with high sensitivity for use with urine is presented. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of urine sediments was used in the first step for fast preselection of urothelial cells, where high-grade urothelial cancer cells are characterized by a large nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio. In the second step, Raman spectral imaging of urothelial cells was performed. A supervised classifier was implemented to automatically differentiate normal and cancerous urothelial cells with 100% accuracy. In addition, the Raman spectra not only indicated the morphological changes that are identified by cytology with hematoxylin and eosin staining but also provided molecular resolution through the use of specific marker ...
Hesham K. Yosef; Sascha D. Krauß; Tatjana Lechtonen; Hendrik Jütte; Andrea Tannapfel; Heiko U. Käfferlein; Thomas Brüning; Florian Roghmann; Joachim Noldus; Axel Mosig; Samir F. El-Mashtoly; Klaus Gerwert
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