Monitoring Thiol–Ligand Exchange on Au Nanoparticle Surfaces
Surface functionalization of nanoparticles (NPs) plays a crucial role in particle solubility and reactivity. It is vital for particle nucleation and growth as well as for catalysis. This raises the quest for functionalization efficiency and new approaches to probe the degree of surface coverage. We present an (in situ) proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) study on the ligand exchange of oleylamine by 1-octadecanethiol as a function of the particle size and repeated functionalization on Au NPs. Ligand exchange is an equilibrium reaction associated with Nernst distribution, which often leads to incomplete surface functionalization following “standard” literature protocols. Here, we show that the surface coverage with the ligand depends on the (i) repeated exchange reactions with large ligand excess, (ii) size of NPs, that is, the surface curvature and reactivity, and (iii) molecular size of the ligand. As resonance shifts and extensive line broadening during and after the ligand exchange impede the ev...
Martin Kluenker; Mihail Mondeshki; Muhammad Nawaz Tahir; Wolfgang Tremel
We recently generalized the formerly alignment-dependent multivariate image analysis applied to quantitative structure–activity relationships (MIA-QSAR) method through the application of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), allowing for its application to noncongruent and structurally dive ... mehr
Poly-ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) is a protein posttranslational modification (PTM) that is critically involved in many biological processes that are linked to cell stress responses. It is catalyzed by a class of enzymes known as poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs). In particular, PARP1 is ... mehr
This review focuses on the type A cytochrome c oxidases (CcO), which are found in all mitochondria and also in several aerobic bacteria. CcO catalyzes the respiratory reduction of dioxygen (O2) to water by an intriguing mechanism, the details of which are fairly well understood today as a r ... mehr