IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1380: In Vitro and In Vivo Experimental Studies of PM2.5 on Disease Progression
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15071380
Air pollution is a very critical issue worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Particulate matter (PM) is a type of air pollution that comprises a heterogeneous mixture of different particle sizes and chemical compositions. There are various sources of fine PM (PM2.5), and the components may also have different effects on people. The pathogenesis of PM2.5 in several diseases remains to be clarified. There is a long history of epidemiological research on PM2.5 in several diseases. Numerous studies show that PM2.5 can induce a variety of chronic diseases, such as respiratory system damage, cardiovascular dysfunction, and diabetes mellitus. However, the epidemiological evidence associated with potential mechanisms in the progression of diseases need to be proved precisely through in vitro and in vivo investigations. Suggested mechanisms of PM2.5 that lead to adverse effects and chronic diseases include increasing oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, and genotoxicity. The aim of this review is to provide a brief overview of in vitro and in vivo experimental studies of PM2.5 in the progression of various diseases from the last decade. The summarized research results could provide clear information about the mechanisms and progression of PM2.5-induced disease.