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The analysis of genome composition and codon bias reveals distinctive patterns between avian and mammalian circoviruses which suggest a potential recombinant origin for Porcine circovirus 3

by Giovanni Franzo, Joaquim Segales, Claudia Maria Tucciarone, Mattia Cecchinato, Michele Drigo

Members of the genus Circovirus are host-specific viruses, which are totally dependent on cell machinery for their replication. Consequently, certain mimicry of the host genome features is expected to maximize cellular replicative system exploitation and minimize the recognition by the innate immune system. In the present study, the analysis of several genome composition and codon bias parameters of circoviruses infecting avian and mammalian species demonstrated the presence of quite distinctive patterns between the two groups. Remarkably, a higher deviation from the expected values based only on mutational patterns was observed for mammalian circoviruses both at dinucleotide and codon levels. Accordingly, a stronger selective pressure was estimated to shape the genome of mammalian circoviruses, particularly in the Cap encoding gene, compared to avian circoviruses. These differences could be attributed to different physiological and immunological features of the two host classes and suggest a trade-off between a tendency to optimize the capsid protein translation while minimizing the recognition of the genome and the transcript molecules. Interestingly, the recently identified Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV-3) had an intermediate pattern in terms of genome composition and codon bias. Particularly, its Rep gene appeared closely related to other mammalian circoviruses (especially bat circoviruses) while the Cap gene more closely resembled avian circoviruses. These evidences, coupled with the high selective forces apparently modelling the PCV-3 Cap gene composition, suggest the potential recombinant origin, followed or preceded by a host jump, of this virus.

Autoren:   Giovanni Franzo; Joaquim Segales; Claudia Maria Tucciarone; Mattia Cecchinato; Michele Drigo
Journal:   PLoS ONE
Band:   13
Ausgabe:   6
Jahrgang:   2018
Seiten:   e0199950
DOI:   10.1371/journal.pone.0199950
Erscheinungsdatum:   29.06.2018
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