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28.886 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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River landscapes and optimal channel networks [Applied Mathematics]

26.06.2018 | Paul Balister; József Balogh; Enrico Bertuzzo; Béla Bollobás; Guido Caldarelli; Amos Maritan; Rossana Mastrandrea; R ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Optimal channel networks (OCNs) are a well-studied static model of river network structures. We present exact results showing that every OCN is a natural river tree where a landscape exist such that the flow directions are always directed along its steepest descent. We characterize the family of ...

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Bacterial iron acquisition mediated by outer membrane translocation and cleavage of a host protein [Microbiology]

26.06.2018 | Khedidja Mosbahi; Marta Wojnowska; Amaya Albalat; Daniel Walker, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is a highly impermeable barrier to a range of toxic chemicals and is responsible for the resistance of these bacteria to important classes of antibiotics. In this work, we show that plant pathogenic Pectobacterium spp. acquire iron from the small, ...

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Monitoring molecular nonadiabatic dynamics with femtosecond X-ray diffraction [Chemistry]

26.06.2018 | Kochise Bennett; Markus Kowalewski; Jérémy R. Rouxel; Shaul Mukamel, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

X-ray crystallography has long been used to determine the structure of crystals and molecular samples. More recent advancements in light sources and computational methods made it possible to routinely determine the structure of large proteins. The introduction of X-ray free-electron lasers opens ...

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Correction for Tang et al., Patterns of plant carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentration in relation to productivity in China’s terrestrial ecosystems [Corrections]

26.06.2018 | National Academy of Sciences, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

ECOLOGY, SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE Correction for “Patterns of plant carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentration in relation to productivity in China’s terrestrial ecosystems,” by Zhiyao Tang, Wenting Xu, Guoyi Zhou, Yongfei Bai, Jiaxiang Li, Xuli Tang, Dima Chen, Qing Liu, Wenhong Ma, Gaoming ...

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History by the numbers? [Social Sciences]

26.06.2018 | Nick Tosh; John Ferguson; Cathal Seoighe, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Turchin et al.’s (1) “Global History Databank” is an exciting project. However, we are not convinced that their principal component analysis (PCA) succeeds in discriminating between competing historical hypotheses. We also have concerns about their missing data imputation strategy. Turchin et ...

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Efficient encapsulation of proteins with random copolymers [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

26.06.2018 | Trung Dac Nguyen; Baofu Qiao; Monica Olvera de la Cruz, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Inside cells of living organisms, aggregates rich in disordered proteins organize the local environment to promote cellular functions. These membraneless organelles are able to concentrate enzymes and biomolecules to regulate interactions via the multiple conformations and compositions of ...

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QnAs with Mark Hay [QnAs]

26.06.2018 | Brian Doctrow, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

All organisms, particularly those that lack vision and hearing, rely on chemical cues to locate food and potential mates, avoid predators, or suppress competitors. Chemical signals constitute a language through which diverse organisms interact, and deciphering the language could deepen ...

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Chromatin remodeling by the NuRD complex regulates development of follicular helper and regulatory T cells [Immunology and Inflammation]

26.06.2018 | Erxia Shen; Qin Wang; Hardis Rabe; Wenquan Liu; Harvey Cantor; Jianmei W. Leavenworth, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Production of high-affinity antibody responses after infection or vaccination requires precise control of germinal center B cells by follicular helper T cells and follicular regulatory T cells. Although the Bcl6 transcription factor plays a central role in follicular T cell differentiation, the ...

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Unique function words characterize genomic proteins [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

26.06.2018 | Andrea Scaiewicz; Michael Levitt, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

The vast, mostly unknown protein universe can be explored by analyzing protein sequences as a string of domains. A broader coverage can be achieved when these domains, the essential blocks in protein evolution, are detected using sequence profiles. Using clustering to collapse redundant profiles ...

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Random critical point separates brittle and ductile yielding transitions in amorphous materials [Physics]

26.06.2018 | Misaki Ozawa; Ludovic Berthier; Giulio Biroli; Alberto Rosso; Gilles Tarjus, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Understanding how amorphous solids yield in response to external deformations is crucial both for practical applications and for theoretical reasons. Here we show that despite large differences in the materials’ microscopic interactions, a degree of universality emerges as there are only two ways ...

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