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854 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen in Annual Review of Biochemistry

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Cyclic GMP–AMP as an Endogenous Second Messenger in Innate Immune Signaling by Cytosolic DNA

27.06.2017 | Kazuki Kato; Hiroki Omura; Ryuichiro Ishitani; Osamu Nureki, Annual Review of Biochemistry, 2017

The innate immune system functions as the first line of defense against invading bacteria and viruses. In this context, the cGAS/STING [cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)–adenosine monophosphate (AMP) synthase/STING] signaling axis perceives the nonself DNA associated with bacterial and viral ...

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A New Facet of Vitamin B12: Gene Regulation by Cobalamin-Based Photoreceptors

27.06.2017 | S. Padmanabhan; Marco Jost; Catherine L. Drennan; Montserrat Elías-Arnanz, Annual Review of Biochemistry, 2017

Living organisms sense and respond to light, a crucial environmental factor, using photoreceptors, which rely on bound chromophores such as retinal, flavins, or linear tetrapyrroles for light sensing. The discovery of photoreceptors that sense light using 5′-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, a form of ...

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Oxidative Stress

27.06.2017 | Helmut Sies; Carsten Berndt; Dean P. Jones, Annual Review of Biochemistry, 2017

Oxidative stress is two sided: Whereas excessive oxidant challenge causes damage to biomolecules, maintenance of a physiological level of oxidant challenge, termed oxidative eustress, is essential for governing life processes through redox signaling. Recent interest has focused on the intricate ...

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At the Intersection of Chemistry, Biology, and Medicine

27.06.2017 | Christopher T. Walsh, Annual Review of Biochemistry, 2017

After an undergraduate degree in biology at Harvard, I started graduate school at The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New York City in July 1965. I was attracted to the chemical side of biochemistry and joined Fritz Lipmann's large, hierarchical laboratory to study enzyme ...

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A New Facet of Vitamin B12: Gene Regulation by Cobalamin-Based Photoreceptors

27.06.2017 | S. Padmanabhan; Marco Jost; Catherine L. Drennan; Montserrat Elías-Arnanz, Annual Review of Biochemistry, 2017

Living organisms sense and respond to light, a crucial environmental factor, using photoreceptors, which rely on bound chromophores such as retinal, flavins, or linear tetrapyrroles for light sensing. The discovery of photoreceptors that sense light using 5′-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, a form of ...

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Biochemistry of Catabolic Reductive Dehalogenation

27.06.2017 | Maeva Fincker; Alfred M. Spormann, Annual Review of Biochemistry, 2017

A wide range of phylogenetically diverse microorganisms couple the reductive dehalogenation of organohalides to energy conservation. Key enzymes of such anaerobic catabolic pathways are corrinoid and Fe–S cluster–containing, membrane-associated reductive dehalogenases. These enzymes catalyze the ...

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Ubiquitin Ligases: Structure, Function, and Regulation

27.06.2017 | Ning Zheng; Nitzan Shabek, Annual Review of Biochemistry, 2017

Ubiquitin E3 ligases control every aspect of eukaryotic biology by promoting protein ubiquitination and degradation. At the end of a three-enzyme cascade, ubiquitin ligases mediate the transfer of ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to specific substrate proteins. Early ...

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Protein Misfolding Diseases

27.06.2017 | F. Ulrich Hartl, Annual Review of Biochemistry, 2017

The majority of protein molecules must fold into defined three-dimensional structures to acquire functional activity. However, protein chains can adopt a multitude of conformational states, and their biologically active conformation is often only marginally stable. Metastable proteins tend to ...

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Telomerase Mechanism of Telomere Synthesis

27.06.2017 | R. Alex Wu; Heather E. Upton; Jacob M. Vogan; Kathleen Collins, Annual Review of Biochemistry, 2017

Telomerase is the essential reverse transcriptase required for linear chromosome maintenance in most eukaryotes. Telomerase supplements the tandem array of simple-sequence repeats at chromosome ends to compensate for the DNA erosion inherent in genome replication. The template for telomerase ...

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Site-Specific Self-Catalyzed DNA Depurination: A Biological Mechanism That Leads to Mutations and Creates Sequence Diversity

27.06.2017 | Jacques R. Fresco; Olga Amosova, Annual Review of Biochemistry, 2017

Self-catalyzed DNA depurination is a sequence-specific physiological mechanism mediated by spontaneous extrusion of a stem-loop catalytic intermediate. Hydrolysis of the 5′G residue of the 5′GA/TGG loop and of the first 5′A residue of the 5′GAGA loop, together with particular first stem base ...

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