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28.886 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue

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Competition for mates and the improvement of nonsexual fitness [Evolution]

26.06.2018 | Li Yun; Patrick J. Chen; Kevin E. Kwok; Christopher S. Angell; Howard D. Rundle; Aneil F. Agrawal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Competition for mates is often intense. The resulting selection can have pervasive effects across the genome, potentially affecting components of nonsexual fitness. There is controversy over whether these effects on nonsexual fitness occur and, if so, their direction. Past studies have yielded ...

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An archaeal primase functions as a nanoscale caliper to define primer length [Biochemistry]

26.06.2018 | Jiangyu Yan; Sandro Holzer; Luca Pellegrini; Stephen D. Bell, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

The first phosphodiester linkage made during DNA replication is in the context of a short RNA primer synthesized by the dedicated RNA polymerase, primase. Primase, after synthesizing a defined short oligoribonucleotide, then transfers this primer to a DNA polymerase for extension. The mechanisms ...

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Lipid binding attenuates channel closure of the outer membrane protein OmpF [Biochemistry]

26.06.2018 | Idlir Liko; Matteo T. Degiacomi; Sejeong Lee; Thomas D. Newport; Joseph Gault; Eamonn Reading; Jonathan T. S. Hopper ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Outer-membrane porins are often considered as passive conduits of small molecules across lipid bilayers. Using native mass spectrometry experiments we identify a pH-sensitive lipid-binding mechanism of outer membrane porin F, which enables increased threading of a colicin-derived peptide through ...

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Stochastic Turing patterns in a synthetic bacterial population [Systems Biology]

26.06.2018 | David Karig; K. Michael Martini; Ting Lu; Nicholas A. DeLateur; Nigel Goldenfeld; Ron Weiss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

In 1952, Alan Turing proposed that biological morphogenesis could arise from a dynamical process in reaction systems with a rapidly diffusing inhibitor and a slowly diffusing activator. Turing’s conditions are disappointingly hard to achieve in nature, but recent stochastic extension of the ...

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Mechanism of gasdermin D recognition by inflammatory caspases and their inhibition by a gasdermin D-derived peptide inhibitor [Immunology and Inflammation]

26.06.2018 | Jie Yang; Zhonghua Liu; Chuanping Wang; Rui Yang; Joseph K. Rathkey; Otis W. Pinkard; Wuxian Shi; Yinghua Chen; Geor ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

The inflammasomes are signaling platforms that promote the activation of inflammatory caspases such as caspases-1, -4, -5, and -11, which cleave gasdermin D (GSDMD) to induce pyroptotic cell death. The mechanisms of GSDMD recognition by inflammatory caspases remain poorly understood. Here, we ...

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Hypoxic tumor microenvironment activates GLI2 via HIF-1{alpha} and TGF-{beta}2 to promote chemoresistance in colorectal cancer [Medical Sciences]

26.06.2018 | Yen-An Tang; Yu-feng Chen; Yi Bao; Sylvia Mahara; Siti Maryam J. M. Yatim; Gokce Oguz; Puay Leng Lee; Min Feng; Yu C ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Colorectal cancer patients often relapse due to resistance to chemotherapy. The tumor microenvironment is known to contribute to tumor aggressiveness and chemoresistance, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the current study, we have shown that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) ...

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Specific binding of PCBP1 to heavily oxidized RNA to induce cell death [Cell Biology]

26.06.2018 | Takashi Ishii; Hiroshi Hayakawa; Tatsuhiro Igawa; Takeshi Sekiguchi; Mutsuo Sekiguchi, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

The binding of human PCBP1 protein to heavily oxidized RNA triggers the induction of apoptosis-related reactions, including the activation of caspase-3 and the cleavage of PARP-1. The introduction of amino acid substitutions in the PCBP1 abolishes this, resulting in the failure of PARP-1 ...

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Going on offense against the gram-negative defense [Microbiology]

26.06.2018 | Bryon S. Drown; Paul J. Hergenrother, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Bacterial infections resistant to antibiotics are becoming more common, posing a significant health risk (1). The CDC and WHO have identified gram-negative drug-resistant pathogens as being particularly dangerous, and such infections are resistant to nearly all available antibiotics in some cases ...

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QnAs with Rafael Radi [QnAs]

26.06.2018 | Sandeep Ravindran, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Rafael Radi has received numerous awards for his work on free radicals, oxidants, and reduction/oxidation pathways in biomedicine. During a long and fruitful career, he has characterized the formation and chemistry of peroxynitrite, including its role in mitochondrial dysfunction, pathology, and ...

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Multiple generations of grain aggregation in different environments preceded solar system body formation [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

26.06.2018 | Hope A. Ishii; John P. Bradley; Hans A. Bechtel; Donald E. Brownlee; Karen C. Bustillo; James Ciston; Jeffrey N. Cuz ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

The initial solids from which the solar system formed consisted almost entirely of amorphous silicate, carbon, and ices. This dust was mostly destroyed and reworked by processes that led to the formation of planets. Surviving samples of presolar dust are most likely to be preserved in comets, ...

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